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An excellent and very readable history of the Armada battle and the whole cauldron of English and European politics surrounding it Mattingly does a superb job of explaining why England and Spain went to war and why Phillip of Spain waited until after the Catholic heir Mary of Scotland was out of the way before launching his invasion plans The book devotes a lot of space and attention to the civil war raging in France at the time, as the Spanish funded Guise faction kept the French state in turmoil, unable to interfere in Spain s wars with England and the Netherlands.Mattingly livens up the narrative with entertaining thumbnail portraits of the main actors The reader comes away feeling as if one knows Elizabeth I, Francis Drake, Phillip of Spain, and Henri III of France.The account of the battle itself is not the typical British triumphalism Mattingly emphasizes how well the Spanish fleet withstood the English attacks, and it was only the disruption of the fireships coupled with an unexpected storm that finally did the Spanish in He also looks closely at the tremendous hole in the Spanish tactical plan the key detail of how the Spanish army in the Netherlands was supposed to link up with the Armada even though they controlled no deepwater ports All in all, a fun, informative, and highly readable book. Garrett Mattingly s classic The Armada will put you at Sir Francis Drake s elbow on board the Elizabeth Bonaventure when he sails into Cadiz to singe the beard of Philip of Spain A marvelous you are there book, beginning with the beheading of Mary Queen of Scots and ending with Elizabeth the First s butt sittingfirmly on the throne of England than ever before in her precarious reign I so want someone to make a film from this book, and make it well Colin Farrell as Drake, maybe The Armada is nominally about the English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 But it isit is a profile of Elizabeth Tudor in the thirtieth year of her reign it is an in depth look at the savage War of the three Henrys that devastated France and the Low Countries it provides some insights into the character of Phillip, king of Spain and above all, it is a panorama of a Europe that, having taken the first step out of the long medieval night, is now groping for the next step leading ultimately to the industrial revolution and the modern world There can be fewfascinating historical characters than Elizabeth She is that most appealing of historical subjects, the executive who grows in office That she survived to age 25 without losing her head is a combination of luck and skill In an age when the royalty of Europe was characterized by extravagance and bizarre, irrational behavior Elizabeth favored fiscal prudence, a long term view, and a deep affection for her yeomanry which formed the backbone of the realm That Elizabeth was able to manage advisors such as Lord Burghley and Walsingham, not to mention the kings of France and Spain, is ample testimony to her political astuteness That she earned and retained for forty five years the enthusiastic support of the common people and the business community in England is a testament to her management of the nation s finances Mattingly begins with the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, drawing the connections between the political murder and the on going war on the continent with Phillip s launching of the famous Armada.Mattingly does a good job of explaining the information sometimes slim that has come down to us, and then providing one orinterpretations of what it might mean One example is the encounter between the Duc de Joyeuse and Henry of Navarre on October 20, 1587 Henry had meant not to fight Joyeuse, but to elude him The Protestants scarcely ever won a pitched battle, and for years had not risked one The B arnais Henry moved fast it was one of his chief distinctions as a captain But this time he was too slow Now as he listened to the crackle of small arms which showed that his outposts were being driven in, he faced the unpleasant fact that although he himself could still get away, he would have to leave most of his troops behind Nothing in the record suggests that Henry entertained for a moment the idea of escape Rather, he gave his captains the impression that this was just the place he would have chosen for a battle Across the few hundred yards of open ground, the opposing horsemen had time to eye each other The Huguenots looked plain and battle worn, in stained and greasy leather and dull gray steel Their armor was only cuirass and morion, their arms mostly just broadsword and pistol Opposite it the line of the royalists rippled and shimmered Three thousand common soldiers were slaughtered,than four hundred knights and gentlemen, and an impressive roll of dukes, marquises, counts and barons At least, said Henry of Navarre at the day s end, nobody will be able to say after this that we Hugeuenots never win a battle And, of course, we have the famous events at Tilbury, August 18 and 19, 1588, when Elizabeth went down from London to review her troops mustered to resist the threatened invasion Elizabeth was easy to upset but hard to frighten Undismayed, she led the martial procession of barges down the river, regaining on the way a sense of participating in great events such as she had not known since the initiative passed from the diplomats to the fighting men When her Captain General came to welcome her and take her orders for the inspection and review, the queen told him She needed no guards among her fellow countrymen in arms for her service And so, whoever may have protested, the inspecting party was arranged That was the whole escort, four men and two boys the little party advanced into the ranks of the militia, which exploded in a roar of cheers The day was so successful she decided it would bear repetition She passed the night at a manor house some four miles off and came back the next day This time there was a review and march past and then the queen went to dine in state in the general s pavilion, and all the captains of her army came to kiss her hand But before that, perhaps at the end of the review, she had spoken to her people words they would cherish My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful for our safety to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery But I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people Let tyrants fear I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England too, and think foul scorn that any prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm to which, rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms Mattingly brings Elizabeth and the other players in this intense drama forward from the one dimensional enumeration of events that frequently passes for history into a three dimensional relief where their motives, characters, and decisions can be seen His presentation is excellent for the general reader his chapter notes provide guidance for one that might wish to delve deeper into the subject. In the late summer of 1588, all of Europe held its breath as an enormous Spanish fleet, consisting of a hundred and fifty vessels of varying sizes, set sail for the English channel Their mission to rendezvous with the elite troops of General Parma in the defeated Netherlands, and to transport them to England, there to revenge the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, and depose Anne Boleyn s daughter That invasion never happened As is famously known, the Armada met English fire and northern winds, and a third of its number was lost utterly on the shores of Britain and Ireland It was for Elizabeth, constantly confronting intrigue from Catholics and Puritans alike, a glorious moment here, before all of Europe, the wind and waves declared that she was the Dread Sovereign of all England The Armada is a storied history not just of the Spanish fleet s doomed voyage into the channel, but how Spain came to launch such an expensive and unwieldy endeavor.Much of the weight of The Armada gives the background information for the English Enterprise Europe is in the throes of the reformation, and rebellions against princes carry with them the fervor of holy wars France, who might oppose the sudden envelopment of England into the Spanish empire, is struggling with its own civil war, and every one of the three contenders is a Henry The Netherlands have risen against their Spanish lords, with the military and fiscal support of Elizabeth who is presumablyinterested in having enemies of Spain at her doorstep rather than Spain itself, given the two powers mutual hostility There is a very good chance that Phillip could get away with styling himself the English king he d already enjoyed the title as Queen Mary s husband, and Elizabeth reigns over a divided nation Many of her subjects maintain faith with the Catholic church, secretly or openly, and several rebellions and conspiracies intending to restore a Catholic monarch to the throne have already erupted If their former king landed and called them to rise against a woman already declared illegitimate by the Church, how easy would it be for them to bury their fears about civil war and declare for Phillip Fortunately for England s men in arms, and their mothers, it never came to that The English engaged in a running battle with the Armada as it made its way towards the Channel there was no epic showdown, but a series of smaller skirmishes, two of which when combined with the storms of the Channel did serious damage to the fleet By the time they neared the rendezvous, in fact ,the admirals in command had to view their stores of rotten food, ailing men, and badly leaking ships in the cold light of reality The Armada was no longer capable of breaking the Dutch blockade that would allow the Spanish to take on their army and transport it to Spain It might not even make it home, if it continued to be harassed Part of the problem was that the Armada was so enormous and unwieldy Its ships were gathered together from across Spain s domain, and many were Mediterranean galleys built for ramming that were out of place in a battle that involvedartillery than swashbuckling shipboard raids Even in the age of standardized equipment and radio communications, the Allies required months of planning and stockpiling to prepare for D Day Spain had a similar challenge, but its every piece of equipment might vary from casting to casting, and its barrels of food spoiled as quickly as they could be found The Spanish sailed in the hopes of a miracle, but they found none When news reached Phillip II, he wrote to the his bishops and could express only thanks that in the light of the stormsmen were not lost.I knew virtually nothing of the Armada except that it sailed, met a storm, and failed Although in retrospect a brief review of the history of the period would have served me well as a reader particularly in regards to France, whom I seem to ignore utterly between 1453 and 1789 , the author s delivery is indeed novel like The personalities of the period, like the swaggering Drake, add to the tale s liveliness Although the wars of the day seem far removed from us now, the author s epilogue couldn t becurrent he cautions the reader that wars of ideologies are always the hardest to win. ( Free Book ) ☨ The Armada ⚖ Chronicling One Of The Most Spectacular Events Of The Sixteenth Century, The Armada Is The Definitive Story Of The English Fleet S Infamous Defeat Of The Spanish Armada InThe Esteemed And Critically Acclaimed Historian Garrett Mattingly Explores All Dimensions Of The Naval Campaign, Which Captured The Attention Of The European World And Played A Deciding Role In The Settlement Of The New World So Skillfully Constructed It Reads Like A Novel New York Times , The Armada Is Sure To Appeal To The Scholar And Amateur Historian Alike I am an aspiring narcoleptic or perhaps just experiencing hypnagogic hallucinations thank you Wikipedia though I believe this book caused most of my daytime drowsiness over the last week for what it is worth, I always wanted to keep reading when I woke up THE SPANISH LOST that came way out of left field, good thing I was sitting laying down. An older but still highly valuable work Mattingly should especially be commended for placing the events of 1588 in the context of the English succession, the Dutch Revolt, and even France s War of the Three Henries This was neither simply a Protestant Catholic struggle nor an English Spanish national rivalry, but a farcomplex inter mixture Though Mattingly emphasizes context, he does not neglect detail, and engages the gaps in the sources effectively Well worth reading. Fucking brilliant Written in a day when outstanding Historians were also occasionally excellent and entertaining Writers, and Garrett Mattingly was certainly both Unusual for a history tome in that it is riveting enough to be difficult to put down, and is written as a series of vignettes laying out the larger conflict from the point of view of the different participants, from Philip of Spain and Elizabeth of England to Henry of France and Mary, Queen of Scots. My favorite history book to date Mattingly has that rare gift of being an historian who can truly bring his characters and the action surrounding them to life His grasp of the historical facts and his ability to compose in a literary fashion combine to create a world that is instantly alive for the reader Highly recommended. An excellent and very detailed review of European history beginning with the beheading of Mary Queen of Scots and continuing through the ultimate demise of the Spanish Armada A perhaps overlooked aspect of the outcome is the fact that the victory likely resulted in the continuing independence of the French state which may have otherwise fallen under the domination of Spain.